СЕНДАЙСЬКА РАМКОВА ПРОГРАМА ЗМЕНШЕННЯ ЛИХ ЯК ІНСТРУМЕНТ СТАЛОГО РОЗВИТКУ: ОСОБЛИВОСТІ ЗАСТОСУВАННЯ У МИРНИЙ ТА ВОЄННИЙ ЧАС
Звіт є четвертим у серії аналітичних звітів, підготовлених БФ “Право на захист” на тему впровадження положень Сендайської рамкової програми зниження ризиків лих. Матеріал планувався як інструмент допомоги у пошуку аргументів для стейкхолдерів у розробці та прийнятті стратегій зменшення ризику лих на різних рівнях. Розпочате 24 лютого 2022 року повномасштабне вторгнення Російської Федерації на територію України ще гостріше актуалізувало питання про застосування принципів Сендайської рамкової програми у післявоєнному відновленні країни.
Під час підготовки звіту аналізувалась загальна спроможність України працювати із ризиками лих. Зокрема щодо виявлення ризиків лих, їхньої ідентифікації, планування заходів щодо попередження, посилення спроможності щодо стійкості під час настання ризиків лих, а також щодо реалізації Четвертого пріоритету Сендайської рамкової програми — відбудовувати «краще, ніж було» («Build Back Better»).
Аналітичний звіт “Сендайська рамкова програма зменшення лих як інструмент сталого розвитку: особливості застосування у мирний та воєнний час” (українська версія)
ПІДВИЩЕННЯ ЕФЕКТИВНОСТІ ГОТОВНОСТІ ДО КАТАСТРОФ ТА ДО ВІДНОВЛЕННЯ, РЕАБІЛІТАЦІЇ І РЕКОНСТРУКЦІЇ ЗА ПРИНЦИПОМ “КРАЩЕ, НІЖ БУЛО”
Документ є результатом попередньо проведеної роботи щодо виявлення рівня включення у державне управління України пріоритетів Сендайської рамкової програми зменшення лих. Він покликаний привернути увагу до зміни підходів до планування розвитку територій місцевих громад із дотриманням пріоритетів Сендайської рамкової програми. Зокрема, аналітична записка ґрунтується на її 4-му пріоритеті “відбудувати краще, ніж було”, а також містить практичні рекомендації щодо його запровадження в контексті сталого відновлення України.
Запропоновані рекомендації сформовані на основі як аналітичного досвіду і дослідницької роботи, так і консультацій із профільними органами центральної виконавчої влади – Міністерством захисту довкілля та природних ресурсів, Міністерством розвитку громад та територій, а також Державною службою з надзвичайних ситуацій України.
Аналітична записка “Підвищення ефективності готовності до катастроф та до відновлення, реабілітації і реконструкції за принципом “краще, ніж було” (українська версія)
Консорціум ЗР був створений у 2019 році групою міжнародних та українських НУО з метою зменшення ризиків стихійних лих в Україні. Члени Консорціуму об’єднані спільною метою підготувати та захистити цивільне населення та стратегічно важливі системи та служби України до ризиків природних, екологічних та промислових катаклізмів.
Видання цих матеріалів стало можливим завдяки фінансовій підтримці Європейського Союзу через його Департамент цивільного захисту і гуманітарної допомоги (ЕСНО).
Софія Шутяк – стратегічний аналітик проєкту «Зменшення вразливості до ризиків катастроф в Україні (Фаза ІІ)», БФ “Право на захист”
Проте висловлені погляди та думки належать лише автору і не обов’язково відображають погляди Європейського Союзу чи Департаменту цивільного захисту і гуманітарної допомоги Європейського Союзу. Ні Європейський Союз, ні орган, що надає гранти, не несуть за них відповідальності.
Серію тематичних лонгрідів щодо сталого відновлення України можна додатково знайти за посиланнями:
Чи є можливим стале економічне післявоєнне відновлення України
Як буде відбудовуватись Україна? Від знання про ризики – до сталого відновлення
Управління ризиками та єдина державна система цивільного захисту: що потребує удосконалення?
Навіщо займатись зменшенням ризиків лих, якщо є система цивільного захисту?
Зменшення ризиків катастроф – чому це важливо для громад?
UNHCR estimates that there were roughly 5,000 asylum seekers and refugees in Ukraine prior to the Russian invasion on 24 February 2022. More than 2000 of them are refugees and persons granted complementary protection in Ukraine. Most of them were forced to flee the war in Ukraine and come to the European Union.
Read below what documents issued by Ukraine confirm these statuses and find copies of them.
Who are beneficiaries from international protection in Ukraine?
Definition of international protection is established in Article 2 “Definitions” of DIRECTIVE 2011/95/EU OF THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT AND OF THE COUNCIL of 13 December 2011 on standards for the qualification of third-country nationals or stateless persons as beneficiaries of international protection, for a uniform status for refugees or for persons eligible for subsidiary protection, and for the content of the protection granted. According to this article para (a), ‘international protection’ means refugee status and subsidiary protection status as defined in points (e) and (g).
According to the List “Travel documents issued by third countries and territorial entities (Part I)”, which is drawn up by the European Commission with the assistance of EU Member States and Schengen Associated States, ‘Refugee’s document for travelling abroad’ is issued to refugees in compliance with the 1951 Convention relating to the Status of Refugees. Document cover is in Cyrillic only. Data page reads: ‘Refugee’s document for travelling abroad’ and page one reads: ‘This document is a refugee’s document for travelling according to the Convention on the Refugee’s Status, 1951’. 18 Schengen countries recognize this travel document for crossing the external borders (Czech Republic, Germany, Greece, Spain, Latvia, Lithuania, Hungary, Malta, Austria, Poland, Portugal, Slovenia, Slovakia, Finland, Sweden, Norway, Switzerland and Liechtenstein), 8 – do not recognize: the Netherlands, Luxembourg, Belgium, France, Italy, Denmark, Estonia, Iceland.
In a situation of forced re-displacement in search of a safe country, refugees should be protected from the obstacles generated by the non-recognition of their travel documents.
Their right to freedom of movement is guaranteed by the Convention relating to the Status of Refugees.
Host states and Ukraine should make efforts to ensure that refugee’s document for travelling abroad issued in Ukraine is recognized in all Schengen countries.
Who are beneficiaries from equivalent national protection in Ukraine?
According to the List “Travel documents issued by third countries and territorial entities (Part I)”, which is drawn up by the European Commission with the assistance of EU Member States and Schengen Associated States, 19 Schengen countries recognize travel document for person granted complementary protection for crossing the external borders (Belgium, the Netherlands, and Luxembourg, Czech Republic, Denmark, Germany, Estonia, Greece, Spain, France, Italy, Latvia (recognized for exit or transit to return to the place of residence), Hungary, Malta, Austria, Slovenia, Slovakia, Finland, Iceland) and 7 – do not recognize: Portugal, Switzerland and Liechtenstein, Poland, Lithuania, Norway, Sweden.
In a situation of forced re-displacement in search of a safe country persons granted complementary protection should be protected from the obstacles generated by the non-recognition of their travel documents.
Most persons granted complementary protection in Ukraine are unable to obtain a national passport, that is why their right to freedom of movement can become real only with the help of travel documents issued by Ukraine.
Host states and Ukraine should make efforts to ensure that travel document for person granted complementary protection issued by Ukraine is recognized in all Schengen countries.
Just before the full-scale invasion of the Russian Federation into the territory of Ukraine on February 24, 2022, the representatives of CF Right to Protection, together with technical experts, within the framework of the Prepare Prevent Protect (3P) Consortium (ACTED, IMPACT Initiatives, R2P, the Danish, and Ukrainian Red Cross Societies) have prepared the analytical report on the impact of dangerous environmental and technogenic factors on the health of the population of Eastern Ukraine.
The report analyzes the problems of the health care system in the Ukrainian-controlled territories of Donetsk and Luhansk regions (as of February 24, 2022), which were caused or exacerbated by the military conflict in Eastern Ukraine, as well as environmental and technogenic hazards in these areas. The report contains respective recommendations for public authorities and authorized structures to reduce the mentioned risks to the health of residents of Donetsk and Luhansk regions, which were relevant at the time of the invasion of the aggressor country in February 2022.
The report contains important and detailed information addressed to the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine, Ministry of Health of Ukraine, Ministry of Ecology and Natural Resources of Ukraine, Ministry of Education and Science of Ukraine, the State Emergency Service of Ukraine, regional state administrations, etc.
Considering the active hostilities that have taken place in Ukraine since the beginning of the full-scale invasion of Russia, and one of the epicenters of which have become the Donetsk and Luhansk regions, where the objects bearing risks of environmental and technogenic character are concentrated, the research itself, as well as conclusions and forecasts there acquire a new meaning.
You can download or view the document in .pdf format:
Analytical Report on the Impact of Dangerous Environmental and Technogenic Factors on the Health of the Population of Eastern Ukraine. Key results and Recommendations
3P Consortium was established in 2019 by the group of international and Ukrainian NGOs to reduce disaster risk vulnerability in Eastern Ukraine. 3P Members of the Consortium are united by their desire to Prepare, Prevent and Protect civilian populations and critical service systems in Ukraine from the risks of natural, ecological and industrial disasters.
This material has been funded by UK aid from the UK government within ‘Increasing resilience to disaster risk in eastern Ukraine’ project. Technical experts Olena Voloshchuk, Cand. Sc. (Biology), and Stanislav Galak, Cand. Sc. (Biology), were directly involved in the development of the analytical report.
However, the views expressed do not necessarily reflect the UK government’s official policies.
Just before the full-scale invasion of the Russian Federation into the territory of Ukraine on February 24, 2022, the representatives of CF Right to Protection, together with technical experts, within the framework of the Prepare Prevent Protect (3P) Consortium (ACTED, IMPACT Initiatives, R2P, the Danish, and Ukrainian Red Cross Societies) have prepared the analytical report on decarbonization process in Eastern Ukraine.
The report presents the results of the research and scenario analysis of coal industry restructuring (liquidation, conservation or reorientation of coal mining and coal processing enterprises for other types of economic activity) in Donetsk and Luhansk regions in the context of decarbonization and just transition. The document contains respective recommendations for public authorities and authorized structures on the process of decarbonization and just transition in Eastern Ukraine, which were relevant on the eve of the invasion of the aggressor country.
The report contains important and detailed information addressed to the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine, the Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine, the National Security and Defense Council of Ukraine, regional state administrations and local governments of coal mining regions, as well as coal industry entities, in particular on improving the regulatory framework to reduce the main risks associated with the restructuring of the coal industry in Eastern Ukraine.
Considering the active hostilities that have taken place in Ukraine since the beginning of the full-scale invasion of Russia, and one of the epicenters of which have become the Donetsk and Luhansk regions, where are concentrated coal industry facilities and infrastructure, the research itself, as well as conclusions and forecasts there acquire a new meaning.
You can download or view the document in .pdf format:
Analytical Report on Decarbonization Process in Eastern Ukraine. Key results and Recommendations
3P Consortium was established in 2019 by the group of international and Ukrainian NGOs to reduce disaster risk vulnerability in Eastern Ukraine. 3P Members of the Consortium are united by their desire to Prepare, Prevent and Protect civilian populations and critical service systems in Ukraine from the risks of natural, ecological and industrial disasters.
This material has been funded by UK aid from the UK government within ‘Increasing resilience to disaster risk in eastern Ukraine’ project. Experts from the Ukrainian Scientific Institute of Technical Ecology were directly involved in the development of the analytical report. Among them are head of research Plyushchakova L.A., experts Chernenko R.O., Nefedova N.A., assistants Trufanov I.O., Chernouz Y.I.
However, the views expressed do not necessarily reflect the UK government’s official policies.
We are pleased to introduce to you the fifth paper in a series within the course of the project “Reducing Disaster Risk Vulnerability in Eastern Ukraine – Phase II” dedicated to the analysis of what should be done at the political and managerial levels today in order to launch country’s recovery based on sustainable development approaches, as well as on the “build back better” principle. And even more – to strengthen the organizational, security and economic resilience of the state to future risks and reduce the number of losses and casualties.
War is always a big stress for the country. This is a test of all state institutions for the effectiveness of ensuring security. Although war is not a thing to be under full control, it nevertheless reveals areas of development in the field of public administration, and also gives an impetus for the search for new political and practical solutions that will be aimed at protecting the country and people from the devastating consequences of war. And most of these decisions will be laid down in the process of reconstruction.
What basic principle should be the basis for the reconstruction of the state?
What should a new infrastructure (including the critical) be like? What issues should be taken into account?
This short article attempts to provide at least an overview of these questions – more precise and specific answers will still require additional work in this direction. However, some general conclusions can already be outlined.
An overview of the legislative framework – what risks were we prepared for?
Here are some examples of legislative acts that show that Ukraine had war threats covered on its agenda, took them into account and evaluated potential war risks in order to identify high-risk facilities. In accordance with this agenda, measures are being taken to maximize the protection of the civilian population and economy from the negative consequences of war.
destruction, fires and explosions of arsenals of bases and warehouses where military weapons are stored, including obsolete ones;
poisoning of people with chemical or toxic substances of military origin.
Characteristics of a Social emergency:
an armed attack on military facilities.
Methodology for Identifying Potentially Hazardous Facilities under the number 30700 mentions “accidents at arsenals, ammunition depots and other military facilities with the release of splinters, rocket and conventional shells.” The risk is also associated with the production and storage of explosive materials used in production processes, as well as military equipment containing explosive materials that are manufactured, stored or disposed of.
Methodology for Assessing Risks and Their Acceptable Levels to Declare the Safety of High-risk Facilities among the rough list of external influences that can lead to the occurrence of dangerous events, under number 36 indicates “sabotage, war, rebellion that can lead to destruction, make a threat of accidents or such an accident itself.” Number 37 indicates “Sabotage, a terrorist act that can be carried out either accidentally or by order of competitors, extortionists, criminal groups, etc.”. So, as we can see, the main risks that the state faced in February 2022 were formulated and listed in legislative acts.
An overview of strategic documents – do they mention risks?
For example, in national-level strategic documents you can often find information about the negative consequences of the war and the corresponding risks for the economic and other areas of development in the context of describing the Donetsk and Luhansk regions. All local Disaster Risk Reduction Strategies that were developed for local communities with international partners’ support also considered the risks of military conflict and its consequences. However, is it possible to manage the risks of military threats? Probably, the answer to this question is a military and political issue, which goes far beyond the scope of this article.
However, according to UNDRR, risk management is becoming an increasingly complex task, given the complexity of causal relationships involved. War and conflict are integral parts of such assessment and the life of humanity.
Current context The ability of ecosystems to self-renovation is slowly decreasing (for example, population growth contributes to the development of the agro-industry)
Environmental pollution and climate change
Population growth in some places and depopulation in others
Growth of the agro-industrial complex and weakening requirements for them
Mapping complex correlations and feedback loops
Environmental stressors that accompany construction
Loss of biodiversity
Complexity of international trade
Sudden and gradual tipping pointsA large-scale event or multiple failures at the same time may suddenly exceed the entire remaining capacity
Market instability Price spikes
Problems with access to water
Multiple bread basket failures
Migration Political destabilization
Civil disorder War
Food security Food riots
Table is based on UNDRR materials
From 1946 to 2001 there were about 220 armed conflicts in the world (Panić, 2008) resulting in more than 20 million casualties and 67 million refugees. According to the UNHCR data as of 30th of March 2022, over 4 million refugees estimated to have fled to neighbouring countries since 24 February and rising.
According to the UN analytical report on post-war reconstruction, there are four risk factors contributing to provoking conflict.
Low income per capita.
Weak economic growth.
The presence of socio-economic horizontal inequality.
How to transform risk awareness into sustainable recovery?
How to rebuild the country? What should be done at the political and managerial level now in order to strengthen the organizational, security and economic resilience of the state to future risks and reduce the number of losses and casualties?
The answers to these questions are appearing step-by-step in legislative acts. In particular, on March 20, 2022, the President signed the Law of Ukraine “On Amendments to Certain Legislative Acts of Ukraine Concerning Environmental Activities and Civil Protection For The Period of Martial Law”. This Law was adopted pursuant to the Article 64 of the Constitution of Ukraine, Articles 12-1, 20 of the Law of Ukraine “On the Legal Regime of Martial Law”, Presidential Decree No. 64 of February 24, 2022 “On the Introduction of Martial Law in Ukraine”. An analysis of the provisions of this Law demonstrates an attempt to restore the country as quickly as possible. In particular, amendments to the Civil Protection Code of Ukraine (Article 8) have expanded the tasks of the Unified State System of Civil Protection (USSCP) in order to:
– restore the country after the war to carry out targeted mobilization aiming at elimination of the consequences of military operations and emergency situations;
– eliminate the consequences of military operations in the settlements and territories affected by weapons of destruction;
– restore critical infrastructure facilities in the sphere of life support of the population;
– identify areas requiring humanitarian mine clearance, marking of dangerous areas, and clearance (demining) of territories;
– involve international assistance to the elimination of the consequences of military operations and emergency situations.
It should be mentioned that such actions will bring the territory of the country into a state suitable for further living and conducting economic activities, but they will not guarantee the implementation of the fourth priority of the Sendai Framework Program for Disaster Risk Reduction (Sendai Framework) – “Build Back Better”, as these issues go beyond the scope of civil protection issues and the competence of the State Emergency Service. It is worth mentioning that since December 2022, Ukraine has been operating a program for the recovery of Ukraine (financial agreement between Ukraine and the European Investment Bank), however, this program does not apply to actions necessary for the recovery of Ukraine after the war. (1)
However, we believe that in this context there is still some room for development and opportunities for more actions. Now we should think about a Ukraine Recovery Program and take into account all previous plans to implement the principles of sustainable development in Ukraine, as well as lessons of this war. In particular, we should think about the procedure for using resources from these funds, fundraising, etc.
The key to this strategy should be to define the criteria of the concept of “Build Back Better”. After all, the experience of the war shows a large number of logistical issues – the transport system needs to be radically improved. Increase the number of routes and roads, including railways and underground ones. Large cities that have become traps for a large number of people can be partially restored. There should be focus on the restoration and expansion of small villages and towns. A special issue is further economic development. Today the idea of a “Marshall Plan” for Ukraine is being discussed in the media, but in addition to it, Ukraine needs new vision of reforms, reconstruction and sustainable development. Financial assistance will contribute to rapid development only if there is a well-developed Recovery Programme and a clear action plan. Currently, Ukraine does not have such a program and plan, but right now the need for its development has become more acute.
As we mentioned before, taking into account the issues of civil protection, human safety during man-caused hazards, and environmental safety as components of national security is possible if all stakeholders involved strictly comply with standards for all types of safety. Moreover, it is the civil and human safety during man-caused hazards, and environmental safety that contribute to the continuous search for the best solutions to achieve goals, and one of the tools for ensuring safety is control (including environmental control).
We would like to remind you that due to the introduction of martial law in Ukraine, the constitutional rights and freedoms of a person and citizen provided for in the Articles 30–34, 38, 39, 41–44, 53 of the Constitution of Ukraine may be restricted temporarily for the duration of the legal regime of martial law. There are also temporary restrictions on the rights and legitimate interests of legal entities within the limits and to the extent necessary to ensure the possibility of introducing and implementing measures of the legal regime of martial law, which are provided for in Part one of Article 8 of the Law of Ukraine “On the Legal Regime of Martial Law”. As we can see, Articles 66, 50, and 16 of the Constitution of Ukraine have not been changed. Ensuring the right to a safe environment is still relevant and should become the cornerstone issue, as well as the obligation not to cause harm to the environment.
Therefore, the termination of scheduled and unscheduled measures of state supervision (control) and state market supervision for the period of martial law, introduced by Presidential Decree No. 64 of February 24, 2022 “On the Introduction of Martial Law in Ukraine” can only be a temporary measure necessary in an emergency. After all, the results of scheduled control are a tool for identifying sensitive issues and finding the best solutions. In addition, the control actions of official authorities will be able to properly create evidence for recording violations of war crimes, losses and damage caused. In its turn, the information and data collected during the control activities will be taken into account for the planning of reconstruction activities.
What basic principle should be the basis for the restoration of the state? We suggest considering the principle “Build Back Better”, which is laid down in the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction, as the basic one. This principle comprehensively reflects the idea of sustainable development and a risk-based approach to recovery. It should become the main value and methodological guidance in the development of the Ukraine Recovery Program and the respective action plan. It is reasonable to start developing these documents now at the level of the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine with the broad involvement of all stakeholders. We would like to add that a compulsory stage in elaboration of such documents should be their strategic environmental assessment.
So, the general algorithm of actions suggested:
Creation of a national system for recording and documenting the facts of destruction (primarily critical infrastructure facilities), movement of businesses and people, etc. It is advisable to provide such recording by creating a) an organizational and legal component of such a system – strengthening the role of regulatory authorities, providing them with security guarantees, adjusting the forms of inspections and methods of fixing violations, and b) an information and technical component – creating an online database that should be administered by the State Emergency Service, but which would be accessible by other state authorities (first of all, the Ministry of Communities and Territories Development and Ministry of Environment and Natural Resources of Ukraine) and international partners;
Legal and regulatory adoption of the “Build Back Better” principle as the key principle of recovery;
Conducting an assessment of the damages caused and making decisions on the feasibility of restoring facilities;
Determining financial sources and material resources for recovery based on the “Build Back Better” principle;
Coordination and unification of civil and human safety requirements in the context of man-caused hazards, as well as environmental safety demands to take into account the principles of sustainable development in decision-making;
Elaboration (based on scientific outcomes) of state programs for the application of the best available technologies considering available local resources (National State Academy of Ukraine together with Ukrainian scientists should be involved).
Finally, it is worth mentioning that the reconstruction process should be implemented with broad discussion and the involvement of the international community and the general public.
“The principle “Build Back Better” should become the main value and methodological guidance in the development of the Ukraine Recovery Programme and the respective action plan.”
Sofia Shutyak, Strategic Analyst of the project “Reducing Disaster Risk Vulnerability in Eastern Ukraine (Phase II)”
This study was possible with the final support of the European Union through its Directorate-General for European Civil Protection and Humanitarian Aid Operations.
This document highlights humanitarian assistance activities funded by the European Union. The opinions expressed are those of the author(s) only and should not be considered as representative of the European Commission’s official position, the European Commission is not responsible for the use of information in the document.
The project is aimed at supporting multi-industry investment sub-projects in the field of municipal and social infrastructure aiming at overcoming the consequences of the conflict in Eastern Ukraine, which devastated parts of this region between March and early September 2014 and continues to this day.
How to reduce the risk of emergencies in eastern Ukraine?
Members of SHIFT Project know how!
The International NGO ACTED has partnered with IMPACT Initiatives, Right to Protection (R2P), and the Danish Red Cross and Ukrainian Red Cross Society (URCS) to implement a 12-month Sustainable Humanitarian Interventions for Transition (SHIFT) project, funded by the Ukraine Humanitarian Fund (UHF).
This project provides humanitarian assistance and access to essential services in three frontline hromadas of Volnovakha raion in eastern Ukraine (Volnovakha, Olhynka, and Myrne), as well as supports strengthened government ownership and response capacity in coordination with development actors. Moreover, it is a pilot project and an important step for the humanitarian system. It shifts away from direct service delivery by external NGOs, who have been implementing the humanitarian response for the past 7 years, and moves toward sustainable and cost-effective response managed by ocal authorities.
One of the key objectives of the Decentralization Reform is to make social services as close as possible to the people who live in the amalgamated territorial communities (hromadas). The process of transferring the authority to provide social services to the local communities is not that easy. At first, the communities will have many questions and face a few difficulties. To help the hromadas, the Charitable Fund “Right to Protection” (R2P) has already been providing expert support for a long time.
In 2021, within the framework of the Project “Support of the Amalgamated Territorial Communities along the contact line in the Reorganization of the Social and Administrative Services with the Decentralization Reform” the CF “Right to Protection” (R2P) has organized preliminary consultations, meetings with hromada representatives to identify the possible solutions to the problems with access to social services.
The measures were aimed at implementing and supporting changes in governance resulting from the process of decentralization while strengthening local governments, accountability, and response capacity in coordination with participants. The implementation of initiatives in communities is a logical continuation of the systematic work on expert support of communities to establish a system of social services in target communities.
In 2022, the CF “Right to Protection” (R2P) continues to support community development initiatives aimed at improving access to social services.
«In 2022, we will be able to help the hromadas establish the financial base to be able to improve the access to social services. The Project envisages the implementation of 5 initiatives in each community, the budget of each initiative is equivalent to 5000 US dollars in hryvnias. It is also planned to provide social workers with tablets, laptops, and uniforms so that they will become more recognizable so that people in the community will be able to recognize them,»
– tells Volodymyr Oleksenko, IDP Protection Coordinator at the CF “Right to Protection” (R2P).
«Recently we have held meetings with all the communities participating in the Project in eastern Ukraine. We have discussed the results of last year’s work, and outlined the plans for our future cooperation,»
— says Oleh Lyubimov, Decentralization Coordinator at the R2P.
“As the employees and managers of the CMA’s receive more powers, the more they feel responsible for the fulfillment of the functions these powers are related to. Yet, at the same time, they lack certain qualifications and special skills. We have seen their need for professional support, including assistance that our experts can provide. Therefore, the R2P’s task is to help them organize a functioning social services system, to be able to provide aid to all residents of their communities.”
– adds Oleh.
In total, five communities are participating in the Project. In the Donetsk region it is Marinska, Svitlodarska, Sartanska hromadas, and in the Luhansk region – Hirska and Nizhnyoteplivska.
«In the Luhansk region, we have specially selected those communities where elections did not take place, where there were no district centers before. From the very beginning, these communities did not have a social service network. They had to start from scratch,»,
– said Olena Hrekova, head of the Severodonetsk office of the Charitable Fund “Right to Protection” (R2P).
For example, in 2021 the experts of the R2P have been actively involved in the establishment of the Department of Social Protection of the Population in the Svitlodarska Civil-Military Administration (CMA). As a result, the Center for Social Services has been reformed. In the Nyzhnyoteplivska village hromada, the Department of Social Protection and the Center for Social Services have also been created. Employees of the community needed assistance in drafting legal and organizational documents.
«Further work will be focused on determining the hromada’s social needs – this will be a completely new work area. Based on this information, communities can apply for subsidies for the development of these social services, as well as to determine further activities to expand the new ones.»,
told Natalia Gubareva, a lawyer of the CF “Right to Protection” (R2P).
During the meetings, our experts have also told the community leaders about the most important instruments of financial support in 2022 from the Government of Ukraine.
Alina Hubar, the Deputy Head of the Nyzhnyoteplivska village hromada, shared her impressions about the cooperation:
«At first, we did not believe in ourselves, that we would find funds, that we would find specialists, without the help of the R2P it would have been difficult for us to even take the first step – to start the registration of the Department of Social Protection and the Center for Social Services. We are very grateful because you have opened our eyes to what we can do, you gave us confidence. Cause one man does not make a team. And most importantly, you have provided us with extremely effective tools!»,
Today we present the January 2022report on the conditions for crossing the Entry-Exit Checkpoints (EECPs) and International/Interstate Border Crossing Points (IBCPs). The report is based on the data collected during the monitoring of the situation at the EECPs in Donetsk and Luhansk oblasts (eastern Ukraine), as well as on the IBCPs “Milove” and “Hoptivka” on the border with Russia.
The purpose of the survey is to gather information on the difficulties and problems faced by the citizens, who are traveling across the Non-Government Controlled Areas (NGCA) and Government-Controlled Areas through EECPs on the contact line in eastern Ukraine, and IBCPs on the border with Russia.
As in previous months, crossing the contact line remained possible only through two of the seven Exit-Entry Crossing Points (EECPs): Novotroitske EECP in Donetsk Oblast and Stanytsia Luhanska EECP in Luhansk Oblast . 94 per cent of all people crossing between the GCA and the NGCA in January did so through Stanytsia Luhanska EECP. This is due to the fact that Novotroitske EECP operates only two days a week, with additional permits required by de facto authorities for crossing.
As in January 2021, the number of people crossing the contact line reached a low point in January 2022. The low level of crossing is most explained by the winter holidays.
On 24 January 2022, the SSU website has been revamped and is ready to register new crossing permits. From November 2021, people without prior registration on the SSU website were unable to register to obtain permits to cross the contact line.
The resumption of the SSU website and abolition of the requirement to install the Vdoma app on 29 December 2021 for people crossing EECPs to GCA considerably made the process easier and less stressful.
COVID-19 vaccination has become one of the reasons to cross EECPs since February 2021. A vaccination centre opened at Novotroitske EECP on 21 January. As a result, people crossing the contact line can be vaccinated at both of the EECPs operating, free of charge.
GOING AROUND THE CONTACT LINE:
January 2022 IBCP Survey Snapshot
In January, the R2P team identified that some people were not informed that the Vdoma app still needs to be downloaded by people crossing through IBCPs. At Hoptivka IBCP, people carried out PCR tests on their own in the neutral zone in order to avoid observation or other measures. 28 per cent of the people interviewed by R2P at Milove and Hoptivka IBCPs were over the age of 60, who often face difficulties installing the Vdoma app or paying for Covid-19 tests. Thus, from Milove IBCP, 15 older people were sent for observation. UNHCR and R2P will seek solutions to strengthen the dissemination of information on existing requirements.
In January, most respondents were residents of Donetsk NGCA (51 per cent), compared to 16 per cent who were residents of Luhansk NGCA. Furthermore, for the third consecutive month, there were no residents of Luhanska NGCA among respondents at Hoptivka IBCP. The reason for the higher number of residents from Donetsk NGCA is that Novotroitske EECP in Donetsk oblast is only open two times per week.
The construction of reception and sanitary facilities for people crossing the border through IBCP in Milove has been completed with UNHCR support.
The report is based on the results of a survey, regularly conducted by the specialists of the Charitable Fund “Right to Protection” (R2P) since June 2017 at Entry-Exit Checkpoints in the Donetsk (Mayorske, Marinka, Hnutove and Novotroitske) and Luhansk (Stanytsia Luhanska) oblasts. Since August 2021 the survey is also conducted at the “Milove” IBCP (Luhansk oblast) and the “Hoptivka” IBCP (Kharkiv oblast).
The survey is part of the monitoring of violations of the rights of the population affected by the conflict and is conducted within the project “Advocacy, Protection and Legal Assistance to the Internally Displaced Population” implemented by the R2P with the support of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR). The purpose of a survey is to explore the reasons and concerns of those traveling from the NGCA to the GCA, as well as conditions and risks associated with crossing the ‘contact line’ and state border through EECPs and IBCPs. The information collected in the survey helps identify protection needs, gaps, and trends, and provides an evidentiary basis for the advocacy efforts.
continue the series of long reads related to the search for applicable
solutions for implementing a risk-oriented approach in the routine daily
practice of all government authorities. This approach is based on the need to
raise awareness that the main objectives of civil protection measures are
identifying the risks of emergencies, preventing emergencies, reducing the
likelihood of their occurrence, minimizing their consequences and strengthening
the readiness of a unified state civil protection system to such consequences.
analyzing the Civil Protection Code of Ukraine we can draw the conclusion that
the legal norms of civil protection regulate relations associated with the
protection of population, territories, environment and property from emergencies.
The also regulate response to these emergencies, the functioning of a Unified
State Civil Protection System (hereinafter – USCPS), and determines the powers
of the governmental authorities, the Council of Ministers of the Autonomous
Republic of Crimea, local governments, the rights and responsibilities of the
citizens of Ukraine, foreigners and stateless persons, enterprises,
establishments and organizations regardless of the ownership form.
it can be assumed that the USCPS should facilitate protection of population,
territories, environment and property from emergencies and respond to them. It
consists of a set of governing bodies and forces of central and local executive
bodies, the Council of Ministers of the Autonomous Republic of Crimea, executive
bodies of councils, enterprises, establishments and organizations that ensure
the implementation of the state policy in the field of civil protection. It is
necessary to point out that this system, by definition, does not include local
The unified state system of civil
protection consists of functional and territorial subsystems and their links.
Regulations on the unified state
system of civil protection, standard provisions
on the functional and territorial subsystems are approved by the
Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine.
The main tasks of the USCPS include:
1) ensuring the readiness of ministries and other central
and local executive bodies, local governments, their subordinate forces and
means to take actions aimed at preventing and responding to emergencies;
2) providing implementation of measures to prevent
3) training population how to behave and act in the event of
4) implementation of the state targeted programs aimed at
preventing emergencies, ensuring the sustainable operation of enterprises,
establishments and organizations, reducing possible material losses;
5) processing of information on emergencies, publication of
information materials on the protection of population and territories from the
consequences of emergencies;
6) forecasting and assessment of social and economic
consequences of emergencies, determination based on the forecast of the need
for forces, means, material and financial resources;
7) creation, rational preservation and use of the reserve of
material and financial resources necessary for prevention and response to
8) informing population about the threat and occurrence of
emergencies, timely and reliable informing about the actual situation and
9) protection of population in case of emergencies;
10) carrying out rescue and other urgent works on liquidation
of consequences of emergency situations, life support of affected population;
11) mitigation of possible consequences of emergencies in
case of their occurrence;
12) implementation of measures for social protection of
13) realization of the rights defined by the law in the
field of protection of population from consequences of emergency situations,
including the persons (or their families) who directly took part in liquidation
of these situations;
14) other tasks specified by law.
Functional subsystems of the unified state civil protection system (hereinafter – functional subsystems) are created by the central executive bodies in the relevant sphere of public life. According to the Law of Ukraine “On Central Governmental Authorities” , the central executive body is a body of executive power that participates in the formation and ensures implementation of state policy in the relevant spheres of public and state life.
The Central Executive Body (hereinafter – CEB) is responsible to the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine, accountable and controlled by it. The system of central executive bodies consists of: 1) ministries; 2) other central executive bodies: state committees and other bodies whose status is equated to a state committee (hereinafter – state committees); central executive bodies with special status.
Therefore, taking into consideration the system of central
governmental bodies, the USCPS
should cover all ministries, other CEBs, including state committees and CEBs
with special status.
Territorial subsystems of the unified state civil protection system (hereinafter – territorial subsystems) operate in the Autonomous Republic of Crimea, oblasts, Kyiv and Sevastopol cities. There are no territorial USCPS subsystems at the level lower than the regional and district cities, therefore, they do not exist at the level of territorial communities (local self-government bodies).
The unified state system, depending on the rank and features of the emergency, either forecasted or the one that is already occurred, operates in the following regimes: day-to-day operation; increased readiness; emergency situation; state of emergency. The analysis of the regimes allows to conclude that they are not aimed at identifying the risks of emergencies.
The regime of daily functioning of the unified state civil
protection system is established under normal industrial, radiation, chemical,
seismic, hydrogeological, hydrometeorological, man-made and fire conditions and
in the absence of epidemics, epizootics, epiphytotic.
In case of emergency risk, by the decision of the Cabinet of
Ministers of Ukraine, the Council of Ministers of the Autonomous Republic of
Crimea, regional, Kyiv or Sevastopol city state administrations high alert
regimes are temporarily established for the unified state civil protection
system in full or in part for some of its territorial subsystems.
In case of emergency, by decision of
the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine, the Council of Ministers of the Autonomous
Republic of Crimea, regional, Kyiv or Sevastopol city state administrations
emergency situation regime is temporarily established for the unified state
civil protection system in full or in part for some of its territorial
The state of emergency for the unified state civil protection system, in full or in part for some of its territorial subsystems, is temporarily established within the territory where the legal regime of emergency state was introduced in accordance with the Law of Ukraine “On the legal regime of emergency state” .
By analysing the Regulation on the Unified State Civil Protection System approved by the Decree of the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine as of January 9, 2014 No 11  we can draw the conclusion that the existing USCPD does not meet the requirements and powers imposed on it by the Civil Protection Code, as at the present time it does not cover all spheres of public life.
The Unified State Civil Protection System is governed by the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine. The Unified State Civil Protection System is directly governed by the State Emergency Service of Ukraine (SESU).
It should be noted that according to official data on the list of existing governmental authorities there are 20 ministries, 25 services, 16 agencies, 5 inspections, 8 CEBs with special status, 3 collegial bodies, 5 other CEBs (including the National Police) in Ukraine – 82 fields of public life and 27 local authorities  in total.
However, according to the Regulation on the USCPS, the existence of functional subsystems is provided only in 11 ministries, 2 services, 4 agencies, 2 inspections, 1 special status body and two committees. The analysis of the approved provisions on subsystems also indicates that these subsystems exist in 20 fields of public life, which is 62 less than the existing ones.
In the context of environmental security – the Ministry of Environment has not created a subsystem for environmental monitoring since 2014. SESU has planned to organise four subsystems before 2022. For the full operation of the USCPS, the existing subsystems should be significantly expanded.
They should be orginised in the field of natural resources and environmental security, as well as in other fields. Criteria for the approach and definition of functional subsystems can be the Article 2 of the Law of Ukraine “On Strategic Environmental Assessment”, which defines the fields of implementation for state planning documents that require assessment of the consequences of their implementation, which requires finding and identifying risks.
It is also advisable to organize the functional systems of
the USCPS at the level of communities, local governments, in order to give them
the opportunity to participate in relations in the field of civil protection.
In addition to functional systems,
there are also civil protection forces, which in particular provide specialized
civil protection services. Specialized civil protection services have the right
1) receiving the information
necessary for civil protection works from local state administrations, local
governments and business entities;
2) unimpeded access to the objects
of business entities and their territory for the implementation of rescue and
other urgent works, elimination the consequences of emergencies;
3) establishing requirements for
compliance with security measures for all persons in the emergency zone.
Regulations on specialized civil protection services and the procedure for their creation are determined by the Decree of the Cabinet of Ministers No 469 .
Taking into consideration the importance of environmental security in organization of civil security, which was described in the article (available at: https://r2p.org.ua/en/risk-reduction-vs-civil-protection-long/), we propose some changes and additions to the current Unified State Civil Protection System, approved by the Decree of the Cabinet of Ministers as of January 9, 2014 No 11.
These changes are based on the need for including local governments in the USCPS, which will allow them to become active parties in civil protection relations and develop the type and strategy of prevention of various kinds of emergencies. The need for changes in the detailed prescribing of functional systems in the field of environmental safety and use of resources is based on the relationship between natural and man-made causes of emergencies.
As the result, risk assessment is possible in close collaboration and providing resources of such public life spheres as subsoil use, forest use, water use, land use and environmental protection, protection of biodiversity, protection of natural ecosystems, as well as the drawing up of urban planning documents which according to the article 45 of the Civil Protection Code should be subject to examination, and hence to risk assessment and taking measures to prepare for their adoption.
All propositions are shown in the table below.
The Annex 1 of the Decree of the Cabinet of Ministers as of January 9, 2014 No 11 should be amended and supplemented with the following information:
The Annex 2 of the Decree of the Cabinet of Ministers as of January 9, 2014 No 11 should be ameneded and supplemented with the following information:
Implementation of the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction, as well as ensuring a safe and healthy for life environment, is possible in case of systematic efforts and changes in order to improve coordination, cooperation and communication between all participants of the Unified State Civil Protection System.
Sofiya Shutyak, the strategic analyst of the project “Reducing vulnerability to disaster risks in Eastern Ukraine (Phase II)”.
This document covers humanitarian aid activities implemented with the financial assistance of the European Union. The views expressed herein should not be taken, in any way, to reflect the official opinion of the European Union, and the European Commission is not responsible for any use that may be made of the information it contains.
 State of emergency is the special legal
regime that may be temporarily imposed in Ukraine or its certain territories in
the case of man-made or natural emergencies with the level which is not lower
than the national level, and in case these emergencies have led or may lead to
human and material losses, pose a threat to life and health of citizen. Also it
can be imposed in case of attempt to seize the state power or change the
constitutional order in Ukraine by force. The state of emergency provides the
relevant state authorities, military command and local governments with powers
necessary to prevent threats and ensure the securement of citizens, normal
functioning of the national economy, governmental authorities and local governments, protection
of the constitutional order, as well as allows temporary restrictions (in case
of threat) in realization of constitutional human and civil rights and
freedoms, the rights and legitimate interests of legal entities, with the
indication of time in force for all the restrictions.